Manufacturing of iron and steel

Steel is the world’s most popular construction material because of its unique combination of durability, workability, and cost. It’s an iron alloy that contains 0.2-2 percent carbon by weight.

According to the World Steel Association, some of the largest steel producing countries are China, Japan, US, and India. China accounts for roughly 50 percent of this production.

The Modern Steel Production Process

Methods for manufacturing steel have evolved significantly since industrial production began in the late 19th century. Modern methods, however, are still based on the same premise as the original Bessemer Process, which uses oxygen to lower the carbon content in iron.

Today, steel production makes use of recycled materials as well as traditional raw materials, such as iron ore, coal, and limestone. Two processes, basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) and electric arc furnaces (EAF), account for virtually all steel production.